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"From Insult to Inclusion: Asia-Pacific report on school bullying, violence and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity” is the first comprehensive regional review to focus specifically on the issue of bullying based on sexual orientation and gender identity or expression (SOGIE). The report details the extent of the problem in Asia-Pacific, the devastating impact of this type of abuse, and the measures governments are taking and could take to address it.
Gender statistics are defined as statistics that adequately reflect differences and inequalities in the situation of women and men in all areas of life (United Nations, 2006). This definition closely follows the Beijing Platform for Action, which was adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995, and in paragraph 206 (a) of which it was recommended that national, regional and international statistical services should ensure that statistics related to individuals are collected, compiled, analysed and presented by sex and age and reflect problems, issues and questions related to women and men in society (United Nations, 1996). There are several requirements imbedded in the definition of gender statistics (Hedman, Perucci and Sundström, 1996; United Nations, 2001a, 2001b, 2002, 2006, 2007; Corner, 2003). First, gender statistics have to reflect gender issues, that is, questions, problems and concerns related to all aspects of women’s and men’s lives, including their specific needs, opportunities and contributions to society.
Gender based violence is a life-threatening, global health and human rights issue that violates international human rights law and principles of gender equality. In emergencies, such as conflict or natural disasters, the risk of violence, exploitation and abuse is heightened, particularly for women and girls. UNFPA’s “Minimum Standards for Prevention and Response to GBV in Emergencies (GBViE)” promote the safety and well being of women and girls in emergencies and provide practical guidance on how to mitigate and prevent gender-based violence in emergencies and facilitate access to multi-sector services for survivors.
There is growing recognition globally and also in Lao PDR that VAW is a serious public health problem and a violation of women’s human rights. Yet in Lao PDR, VAW is culturally tolerated. According to the Lao Social Indicator Survey (LSIS) 2011-2012, 58% of women and 49% of men reported that VAW was justified if women did not adhere to traditional gender norms, roles and relations. However, this finding only sheds a small amount of light onto the true scale of the problem. Although small-scale studies have been undertaken on VAW, no comprehensive and extensive nationwide study has followed. Against this background, the National Study on Women’s Health and Life Experiences 2014 was conducted to collect much needed evidence to develop an effective policy-making response to the issue.
Keywords: physical, sexual, violence, gender, children, legal
Preventing HIV Transmission in Intimate Partner Relationships: Evidence, strategies and approaches for addressing concentrated HIV epidemics in Asia provides evidence-based guidance to policymakers in Asia so that national HIV responses give appropriate priority to prevention efforts among key populations and their intimate partners, as well as those in serodiscordant relationships. Scaling up efforts to prevent intimate partner transmission of HIV will help countries to meet targets to halve sexual transmission of HIV, eliminate mother-to-child transmission, reduce AIDS-related maternal deaths, and address gender inequalities.
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The report documents the presentations and discussions made during the Regional Dialogue on LGBTI Human Rights and Health in Asia-Pacific held from 25–27 February 2015 at the United Nations Conference Centre in Bangkok, Thailand. The Regional Dialogue, which brought together more than 200 representatives from over 30 countries, was an important step in building consensus and strengthening the movement for legal and social change to advance the human rights of LGBTI people in Asia and the Pacific. It aimed to identify opportunities, build trust, and promote innovation and action. It also actively encouraged private sector involvement in LGBTI rights and provided a forum for LGBTI community organizations and development partners to forge strategic linkages in order to take their agendas forward.
Keywords: HIV, advocacy, gender recognition, education, human rights, health, stigma and discrimination
Violence against women has negative health impacts on victims, especially the reproductive health of women and girls. While violecne is considered immoral and unacceptable in Cambodian culture, gender norms remain heavily rooted in society.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) occurs in the family, the community, society and across borders. It takes many forms, from domestic violence, trafficking and rape – in urban and rural areas, in refugee camps and as a tactic of war – to harmful practices such as child and forced marriage, “honour” killings, dowryrelated violence and prenatal sex selection.
In addition to the severe and multiple physical, sexual and psychological impacts on women and girls themselves, VAWG also harms families and communities across generations and carries significant economic costs. Violence can also limit women’s ability to protect themselves from HIV, while women living with HIV/AIDS are often the target of abuse, stigma and discrimination. An expression of unequal gender power relations and men’s domination and control over women, VAWG is both a manifestation of gender discrimination and inequality and a tool with which such discrimination is perpetuated.
The Belau Family Health and Safety Study (FHSS) aimed at obtaining reliable data on the prevalence and types of violence against women (VAW) in Palau. The study also sought to document the associations between partner violence and health issues and other outcomes, as well as to identify risk and protective factors for partner violence. The Ministry of Health carried out the study with financial support from the Australian Government’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), and financial and technical support from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).
Keywords: physical and sexual violence, partners, children, sexual abuse
Thailand is often perceived by both foreigners and some of its own population as very accepting of sexual and gender diversity. A Thai government agency makes use of this perception in a campaign aimed at increasing the number of foreign LGBT tourists in Thailand, gothai.befree. Yet some researchers have suggested that Thai society is “tolerant but unaccepting” toward same-sex attracted individuals and concluded that the perception of Thailand as a “gay heaven” is a myth There has been research on school bullying in Thailand14, but only anecdotal evidence on bullying specifically targetting students who are, or are perceived to be, LGBT, or mechanisms to counter it in Thai schools
This study aimed to fill this gap in evidence, and to identify policy and programme implications. It is the first systematic study on the issue in Thailand.