The Global State of Harm Reduction 2016. Stone K. (2016)


The new data in this report shows a worrying slowdown in the provision of harm reduction services for people who use drugs, with no new countries introducing needle and syringe programmes since 2014.

Along with this, there has been a rise in injecting stimulant use across all regions of the world, and a dramatic increase in overdose deaths.

Harm reduction in prisons also remains vastly insufficient, with only a very small number of countries providing needle exchange or overdose training in at least one prison.


Keywords: HIV, PWID, prisoners, drug, OST, NSP, hepatitis C, needle/syringe


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United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners. United Nations. (2016)


Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 17 December 2015. The General Assembly, Guided by the principal purposes of the United Nations, as set out in the Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,1 and inspired by the determination to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, without distinction of any kind, and in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. 

Keywords: human rights, crime, prevention, awareness


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Leave No One Behind - Posters from Asia-Pacific Intergovernmental Meeting on HIV and AIDS, Bangkok 28-30 January 2015. ESCAP. (2015)


Legal and policy barriers hinder universal access to HIV services in Asia and the Pacific. 
Many countries in the region still apply laws that deny the human rights of people living with HIV and key populations at higher risk of HIV. 

To overcome these barriers and ensure that we leave no one behind, we need rights-based laws and policies.

Let us hear what people from key populations have to say about the legal and policy barriers they face. 


Keywords: HIV, IGM, discrimination, human rights, PLHIV, MSM, transgender people, PWID, sex workers, young people, migrants, prisoners, pregnant women, girls, treatment

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Prison Health Services Strategy 2.0. Ministry of Public Health, Afghanistan. (2015)


Prison Health Services are part of Basic Health Services of Afghanistan. The implementation channel of the PHS is the same as BPHS. Health needs of the prisoners are the same to the general population with the difference of higher prevalence and incidence of the diseases in the prisons. Mental problems are more present in the custody system in the country. There is a special focus on mental health services in the prisons and Juvenile Rehabilitation Centers (JRCs). There is a very closed contact among prisoners and it increases risk of spread of communicable disease among the prisoners. Diseases prevention is a back bone of prison health services.

Keywords: HIV, tuberculosis (TB), prisoners, health


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ASEAN Good Practices and New Initiatives in HIV and AIDS. The ASEAN Secretariat Jakarta. (2014)


According to the First ASEAN Regional Report on HIV and AIDS in 2011, “Addressing AIDS in ASEAN Region”, there are 1.5 million people estimated to be living with HIV distributed amongst the ASEAN Member States (AMS). The national HIV prevalence rates in the region range from 0.1 per cent to 0.7 per cent. Although prevalence rates are decreasing, current estimates indicate that there are some AMS that are showing an increasing trend.
The key risk behaviours that drive the HIV epidemic in the region are unprotected sex with multiple partners and needle sharing in injecting drug use. Seventy-five per cent of all HIV infections in ASEAN are reported among key populations (KPs) of sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender, and people who inject drugs. Other vulnerable populations include the intimate partners of KPs, youths, and mobile populations.

Keywords: HIV, PMTCT, testing, STI, prevention, FSW, transgender people, MSM, prison setting, PWID, migrant workers

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Guidance Note: Services for People in Prisons and Other Closed Settings. UNAIDS. (2014)


All modes of transmission occurring in the broader community (blood-borne, sexual and vertical transmission) also occur in prisons. HIV is transmitted in prison settings through the sharing of contaminated injecting equipment among people who inject drugs; consensual or coerced unsafe sexual practices including rape; unsafe skin piercing and tattooing practices as well as body modifications; and blood-borne transmission resulting from the sharing of shaving razors, so-called brotherhood blood-sharing rituals and the improper sterilization or reuse of medical or dental instruments.

Keywords: HIV, TB, epidemiology, policy and legal framework, gender, human rights



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Policy Brief: Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations. WHO (2014)


This policy brief provides an overview of key findings, data and figures of the new consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations. In addition, it offers an overview of the comprehensive package on interventions and a table summarizing WHO recommendations concerning key populations.


Keywords: HIV, men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), sex workers, transgender, testing, treatment

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Evaluation of the National HIV Prevention Program for Key Affected Populations, Migrant Workers and Prisoners. Institute for Population and Social Research Mahidol University. (2013)


Objective of the evaluation
1. To evaluate the quality, coverage and efficiency of HIV prevention for KAP and prisoners.
2. To promote the use of the evaluation findings to inform the design of strategies, implementation and refinement of interventions supported by the Global Fund.

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A Review of HIV in Prisons in Nepal. Dolan K and Larney S (2009)

A Review of HIV in Prisons in Nepal. Dolan K and Larney S (2009) Background: HIV in prisons is a serious public health concern. People in prison are at risk of contracting HIV through injecting drug use, unprotected sex and tattooing. However, most countries have largely neglected HIV prevention and care in prisons. Objectives: The aim of this study is to review HIV prevention and care in Nepal’s prisons

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Towards Universal Access: Scaling up Priority HIV/AIDS Interventions in the Health Sector. WHO, UNAIDS and UNICEF (2009)

Towards Universal Access: Scaling up Priority HIV/AIDS Interventions in the Health Sector. WHO, UNAIDS and UNICEF (2009) The purpose of this document is to provide a framework for mounting an effective national response to HIV/AIDS in prisons* that meets international health and human rights stan- dards, prioritizes public health, is grounded in evidence-based interventions and best practices,** and supports the good management of custodial institutions.

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