Although there is evidence of progress, all 

38 countries 

still have laws that impede HIV response.

37

criminalize some aspects of sex work

11

have compulsory detention centres for people who use drugs

15

have the death penalty for drug-related offences

17

criminalize same-sex relations

10

impose some form of restriction on the entry, stay and residence of people living with HIV based on their HIV status
Countries that have conducted legal reviews or consultations under ESCAP Roadmap
Click here for summaries and published reports

All reviews and consultation reports available on AIDS Data Hub

COUNTRY DATA

Afghanistan

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

5/10

5/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Bangladesh

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

4/10

4/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Cambodia

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

4/10

3/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

China

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

5/10

5/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Fiji

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

5/10

5/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

India

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

5/10

4/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Indonesia

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

3/10

2/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Lao PDR

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

7/10

6/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Malaysia

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

7/10

7/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Mongolia

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

4/10

4/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Myanmar

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

5/10

5/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Nepal

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

6/10

4/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Pakistan

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

2/10

2/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Papua New Guinea

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

4/10

3/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Philippines

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

7/10

5/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Sri Lanka

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

N/A

Legal services (legal aid or other)

   N/A

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

N/A

N/A

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Thailand

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

5/10

3/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 

Viet Nam

Civil society perspective (NCPI 2014)

Access to justice

Legal services (legal aid or other)

NHRI or other mechanisms

 

Civil society perspectives/

ratings:

Laws and policies in place to protect and promote HIV-related human rights

Efforts to implement human rights-related laws and policies

2013

8/10

6/10

Trend (2009-2013)

 
PLHIV stigma index
  • No. of countries completed PLHIV stigma index

    14

Progress to zero discrimination

ZERO

Discrimination

Fast-Track

On 27 May 2015, Australia joined the group of countries that have eliminated laws specifically criminalizing HIV transmission, exposure and non-disclosure by repealing the last piece of State based legislation (s 19A of the Crimes Act (Vic)).

ZERO

Discrimination

Fast-Track

In August 2014, Cambodian regulation (Prakas 194) setting out legal protections for labour rights of entertainment workers (including sex workers), such as protection against discrimination, violence and abuse, and access to health information, education and services was endorsed.

ZERO

Discrimination

Fast-Track

Same sex marriage was confirmed legal in Guam in June 2014, and in August 2015 the Employment Non-Discrimination Act was passed, extending workplace protections based on sexual orientation and gender identity and expression.

ZERO

Discrimination

Fast-Track

Myanmar amended the Burma Excise Act (1917) in December 2015 to remove penalties and fines for possessing hypodermic needles. This removes a key barrier to access to harm reduction for people who use drugs.

ZERO

Discrimination

Fast-Track

On 20 September 2015, Nepal took a historic step by adopting a new constitution, which protects lesbians, gays, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people from discrimination, violence, and abuse.

ZERO

Discrimination

Fast-Track

In September 2014, Quezon City, Philippines passed an Ordinance prohibiting violence and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity.

ZERO

Discrimination

Fast-Track

In January 2015, Chinese Taipei removed HIV-related restrictions for entry, stay and residence.

ZERO

Discrimination

Fast-Track

As of September 2015, Thailand's Gender Equality Act explicitly prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender and is inclusive of lesbians, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT).

ZERO

Discrimination

Fast-Track

Viet Nam will end the death penalty for seven crimes including possession and appropriation of drugs when the revised Penal Code takes effect on 1 July 2016.

ZERO

Discrimination

Fast-Track

Viet Nam completed the second round of the People Living with HIV Stigma Index in November 2014, providing evidence to inform efforts to achieve zero discrimination.

IMPACT OF LEGAL AND POLICY BARRIERS IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
TG image
MSM image
PLHIV image
Sex workers image
PWID image
Access to treatment image
Young people image
Migrants image
Prisoners image
Pregnant
women and girls image
Young
people's access
to testing image
Young
people's access
to harm reduction image

Population size estimates shown in infographics are for ESCAP Members and Associate Members